Effects of inhaler therapy on mortality in patients with tuberculous destroyed lung and airflow limitation
Received 12 November 2018
Accepted for publication 13 January 2019
Published 5 March 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 377—387
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Ho Cheol Kim,1,* Tae Hoon Kim,2,* Chin Kook Rhee,3 Minkyu Han,4 Yeon-Mok Oh1
1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: Although patients with tuberculous destroyed lung (TDL) receive long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) inhaler therapy, its effectiveness is not clear. This study evaluated the effect of LAMA inhaler therapy on mortality in patients with TDL and airflow limitation.
Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort of 683 patients with TDL and airflow limitation was analyzed in this study. The mortality was compared between 177 patients treated with LAMA inhalers >360 days (LAMA group) and 506 patients not treated with LAMA inhalers or treated with LAMA inhalers for <360 days (non-LAMA group). Risk factors for mortality were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models and survival analysis was performed after propensity score matching.
Results: Patients in the LAMA group appeared to have worse baseline characteristics, older mean age, lower lung function, higher X-ray severity, and were more likely to receive long-term oxygen therapy than those in the non-LAMA group. On multivariate analysis, LAMA inhaler usage was independently associated with lower risk of mortality (HR, 0.405; P=0.006) after adjusting age, gender, body mass index, smoking history, Charlson Comorbidity Index, lung function, X-ray severity, and long-term oxygen therapy. After propensity score matching to adjust for the above unbalanced baseline characteristics, patients in the LAMA group tended to have a better prognosis than those in the non-LAMA group (121 patients in each group, 5-year mortality rate: 2.5% vs 9.1%, P=0.057). If we performed the same analysis of propensity score matching even after excluding patients with corticosteroids/long-acting beta-2 agonist (ICS/LABA) usage, patients in the LAMA group had a better prognosis than those in the non-LAMA group (64 patients in each group, 5-year mortality rate: 3.1% vs 14.1%, P=0.039).
Conclusion: LAMA inhaler treatment might reduce mortality in patients with TDL and airflow limitation.
Keywords: tuberculosis, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, propensity score, survival
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