Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 11

Effects of Carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study

Authors Zheng Y, Ouyang WQ, Wei YP, Syed SF, Hao CS, Wang BZ, Shang YH

Received 8 August 2016

Accepted for publication 24 September 2016

Published 10 November 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 5971—5987


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun

Yin Zheng,1 Wu-Qing Ouyang,1 Yun-Peng Wei,1 Shahid Faraz Syed,2,3 Chao-Shuang Hao,1 Bo-Zhen Wang,4 Yan-Hong Shang1,5

1Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi; 3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lasbella University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal Baluchistan, Pakistan; 4College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 5College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

Abstract: Nanoemulsions (NEs) are used as transdermal drug delivery systems for systematic therapeutic purposes. We hypothesized that the skin permeation profile of an NE could be modulated by incorporating it into a hydrogel containing differing proportions of thickening agent. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the stability and skin irritability of NE gels (NGs) containing 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) Carbopol® 934 (CP934) (termed NG1, NG2, and NG3, respectively); 2) to compare the skin permeation profiles and drug deposition patterns of the NGs; and 3) to visualize the drug delivery routes of the NGs. Terbinafine and citral were incorporated into the NGs as model drugs. Ex vivo skin permeation tests indicated that the percutaneous flux rates of terbinafine decreased in the order NE (215 µg/cm2) > NG1 (213 µg/cm2) > NG2 (123 µg/cm2) > NG3 (74.3 µg/cm2). The flux rates of citral decreased in the order NE (1,026 µg/cm2) > NG1 (1,021 µg/cm2) > NG2 (541 µg/cm2) > NG3 (353 µg/cm2). The NGs accumulated greater amounts of the drugs in the stratum corneum and less in the epidermis/dermis than did the NE (P<0.05) over a period of 12 h. Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that the NGs altered the main drug delivery routes from skin appendages to intercellular paths. Histological images suggested that perturbations to the skin structure, specifically the size of the epidermal intercellular spaces and the separation distance of dermal collagen bundles, could be significantly minimized by increasing the proportion of CP934. These results suggest that adjustments of the CP934 proportions can be used to modulate the skin permeation profiles of NGs for specific therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: nanoemulsion, nanoemulsion gel, Carbopol 934 proportion, topical drug delivery, transdermal drug delivery

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]