Effect of warming anesthetic on pain perception during dental injection: a split-mouth randomized clinical trial
Authors Aravena PC, Barrientos C, Troncoso C, Coronado C, Sotelo-Hitschfeld P
Received 27 July 2017
Accepted for publication 9 December 2017
Published 22 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 9—13
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Stefan Wirz
Pedro Christian Aravena,1,2 Camila Barrientos,1 Catalina Troncoso,1 Cesar Coronado,3 Pamela Sotelo-Hitschfeld4
1Department of Dentistry, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; 2Department of Dental Implant Surgery, São Leopoldo Mandic School and Dental Institute, Campinas, SP, Brazil; 3Faculty of Health Science, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 4Department of Center for Interdisciplinary Studies on Nervous System (CISNe), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of warming anesthesia on the control of the pain produced during the administration of dental anesthesia injection and to analyze the role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 nociceptor channels in this effect.
Patients and methods: A double-blind, split-mouth randomized clinical trial was designed. Seventy-two volunteer students (22.1±2.45 years old; 51 men) from the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Austral de Chile (Valdivia, Chile) participated. They were each administered 0.9 mL of lidocaine HCl 2% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (Alphacaine®) using two injections in the buccal vestibule at the level of the upper lateral incisor teeth. Anesthesia was administered in a hemiarch at 42°C (107.6°F) and after 1 week, anesthesia was administered by randomized sequence on the contralateral side at room temperature (21°C–69.8°F) at a standardized speed. The intensity of pain perceived during the injection was compared using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS; Wilcoxon test p<0.05).
Results: The use of anesthesia at room temperature produced an average VAS for pain of 35.3±16.71 mm and anesthesia at 42°C produced VAS for pain of 15±14.67 mm (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The use of anesthesia at 42°C significantly reduced the pain during the injection of anesthesia compared to its use at room temperature during maxillary injections. The physiological mechanism of the temperature on pain reduction could be due to a synergic action on the permeabilization of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 channels, allowing the passage of anesthetic inside the nociceptors.
Keywords: pain, dental anesthesia, maxillary, lidocaine, trigeminal nerve, clinical trial, TRP channel
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