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Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement

Authors Jammalamadaka U, Tappa K, Weisman JA, Nicholson JC, Mills DK

Received 31 December 2016

Accepted for publication 19 April 2017

Published 12 June 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 105—114

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S131412

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Uday Jammalamadaka,1 Karthik Tappa,1 Jeffery A Weisman,1 James Connor Nicholson,2 David K Mills1,3

1Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, 2Nanosystems Engineering, 3The School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA

Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons.

Keywords: barium, bone cement, halloysite, imaging, PMMA, sintering

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