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Early Diagnosis And Management Of Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction: A Review On Current Recommendations And Guidelines

Authors Fernandez Y Viesca M, Arvanitakis M

Received 13 September 2019

Accepted for publication 23 October 2019

Published 5 November 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 415—432

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S195714

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Andreas M. Kaiser


Michael Fernandez Y Viesca, Marianna Arvanitakis

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology and Digestive Oncology, Erasme Hospital, Univertié Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium

Correspondence: Marianna Arvanitakis
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology and Digestive Oncology, Erasme Hospital, Univertié Libre De Bruxelles (ULB), Route De Lennik 808, Brussels 1070, Belgium
Tel +3225553712
Email Marianna.Arvanitaki@erasme.ulb.ac.be

Abstract: Malignant biliary obstruction is a challenging condition, requiring a multimodal approach for both diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma are the leading causes of malignant distal biliary obstruction. Early diagnosis is difficult to establish as biliary obstruction can be the first presentation of the underlying disease, which can already be at an advanced stage. Consequently, the majority of patients (70%) with malignant distal biliary obstruction are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. The association of clinical findings, laboratory tests, imaging, and endoscopic modalities may help in identifying the underlying cause. Novel endoscopic techniques such as cholangioscopy, intraductal ultrasonography, or confocal laser endomicroscopy have been developed with promising results, but are not used in routine clinical practice. As the number of patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction who will undergo curative surgery is limited, endoscopy has a crucial role in palliation, to relieve biliary obstruction. According to the last European guidelines published in the management of biliary obstruction, self-expandable metal stents have a central place in biliary drainage compared to plastic stents. Endoscopic ultrasound has evolved impressively in the last decades. When standard techniques of biliary cannulation by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography fail, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage is a good option compared to percutaneous drainage.

Keywords: distal biliary stricture, pancreaticobiliary malignancy, preoperative biliary drainage, self-expandable metal stent, palliative biliary drainage

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