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Drug-related problems in a sample of outpatients with chronic diseases: a cross-sectional study from Jordan

Authors Al-Azzam SI, Alzoubi KH, AbuRuz S, Alefan Q

Received 13 October 2015

Accepted for publication 8 January 2016

Published 17 February 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 233—239

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S98165

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Hoa Le

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh

Sayer I Al-Azzam,1 Karem H Alzoubi,1 Salah AbuRuz,2 Qais Alefan1

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 2Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

Abstract: Optimization of drug therapy and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs) are major factors to improve health care, reduce expenditure, and potentially save lives. This study aimed at describing the types, numbers, and frequencies of DRPs in the outpatient settings of a group of hospitals in Jordan. The study was set in the cardiology, endocrine, and respiratory outpatient clinics of five major hospitals in Jordan. Patients who visited the above clinics during the period from September 2012 to December 2013, were candidates for this study. Each included subject was fully assessed for DRPs by clinical pharmacists according to a specially designed and validated pharmaceutical care manual. The main outcome measures were the number and types of DRPs. Data were collected from 2,898 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.59±13.5 years). The total number of identified DRPs was 32,348, with an average of 11.2 DRPs per patient. The most common DRPs were a need for additional or more frequent monitoring, a problem in patients’ adherence to self-care activities or nonpharmacological therapy, and that the patient was not given instruction in or did not understand nonpharmacological therapy or self-care advice. The numbers of DRPs per patient in our sample were associated with older age (>57 years), being unmarried, having an education level of high school or less, not having health insurance, and the presence of certain clinical conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, cardiac catheterization, heart failure, and gout. In conclusion, implementation of clinical pharmacy services is a strategy to limit DRPs. Certain patient populations are more vulnerable to DRPs.

Keywords: drug-related problems, outpatient, hospital, Jordan

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