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Diabetic gastroparesis: current challenges and future prospects

Authors Avalos DJ, Sarosiek I, Loganathan P, McCallum RW

Received 25 September 2017

Accepted for publication 26 March 2018

Published 25 September 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 347—363


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Andreas M Kaiser

Danny J Avalos,1 Irene Sarosiek,1 Priyadarshini Loganathan,2 Richard W McCallum1

1Division of Gastroenterology, Center for Neurogastroenterology and GI Motility, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA

Abstract: Diabetic gastroparesis (DMGP) is a condition of delayed gastric emptying after gastric outlet obstruction has been excluded. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal pain are associated with DMGP. Uncontrolled symptoms can lead to overall poor quality of life and financial burdens on the healthcare system. A combination of antiemetics and prokinetics is used in symptom control; metoclopramide is the main prokinetic available for clinical use and is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved agent in the United States. However, a black box warning in 2009 reporting its association with tardive dyskinesia and recommending caution in chronically using this agent beyond 3 months has decreased its role in clinical practice. There is an unmet need for new prokinetics with good efficacy and safety profiles. Currently, there are several new drugs with different mechanisms of action in the pipeline that are under investigation and show promising preliminary results. Surgically combining gastric electrical stimulation with pyloroplasty is considered “gold” standard. Advances in therapeutic endoscopic intervention with gastric per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy have also been shown to improve gastric emptying and gastroparesis (GP) symptoms. In this review, we will comment on the challenges encountered when managing patients with DMGP and provide an update on advances in drug development and endoscopic and surgical interventions.

Keywords: bloating, fullness, nausea, vomiting, Enterra, diabetes

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