Diabetes-Related Distress and Depression in Saudis with Type 2 Diabetes
Received 26 March 2020
Accepted for publication 8 May 2020
Published 15 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 453—458
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Einar Thorsteinsson
Turki Alzughbi,1 Mohammed Badedi,1 Hussain Darraj,1 Abdulrahman Hummadi,1 Sattam Jaddoh,2 Yahiya Solan,1 Abdullah Sabai3
1Jazan Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Jazan Health Affairs, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 2Jazan Psychiatry Hospital, Jazan Health Affairs, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 3Public Health Administration, Jazan Health Affairs, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence: Turki Alzughbi
Jazan Diabetes Center, Ministry of Health, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Objective: This study aims to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related distress and depression and their associated factors in Saudi people with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. It also aims to assess the association between glycemic control and DM-related distress and depression.
Methods: This is an analytical, cross-sectional study which recruited 300 Saudi patients with T2DM randomly from primary healthcare centers in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. DM-related distress and depression were measured by valid questionnaires, the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Logistic regression and an independent t-test were performed in the statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 52.7 years, with a range of 23– 83 years. The number of males was 147 (49%) and females was 153 (51%) in the study population. The prevalence of DM-related distress and depression in Saudi patients with T2DM in Jazan was 22.3% and 20%, respectively, and about 7.7% had both. Of DM-related distress, 12.3% had interpersonal-related DM distress, 11.7% had physician-related DM distress, 10.7% had emotional-related DM distress, and 7% had regimen-related DM distress. After adjusting for covariates, being female, patients aged < 45, physical inactivity, DM duration < 5 years, and smoking were significantly associated with DM-related distress and depression. There was also a significant association between DM-related distress and depression, OR = 3 [95% CI: 1.8, 6.4]. Furthermore, we found that glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were significantly higher in those with DM-related distress (small effect size, eta squared = 0.04) and depression (moderate effect size, eta squared = 0.06) (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: DM-related distress and depression are prevalent in patients with T2DM in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Both these conditions need to be screened for and addressed in clinical settings. Establishing the causality of DM-related distress and depression in T2DM is an important aim for any future studies.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, diabetes distress, depression
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