Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes
Yunpeng Cai,1,2 Mingxin Xu,2 Minglu Yuan,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2
1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
Abstract: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) enabled the application of human growth hormone both in clinical and research use in the 1980s, millions of patients were prescribed a daily injection of rhGH, but noncompliance rates were high. To address the problem of noncompliance, numerous studies have been carried out, involving: sustained-release preparations, prolonged half-life derivatives, new injectors that cause less pain, and other noninvasive delivery methods such as intranasal, pulmonary and transdermal deliveries. Some accomplishments have been made and launched already, such as the Nutropin Depot® microsphere and injectors (Zomajet®, Serojet®, and NordiFlex®). Here, we provide a review of the different technologies and illustrate the key points of these studies to achieve an improved rhGH product.
Keywords: intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, microsphere, microneedle, hydrogel
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