Development of nanoemulsion for efficient brain parenteral delivery of cefuroxime: designs, characterizations, and pharmacokinetics
Authors Harun SN, Amin Nordin S, Abd Gani SS, Shamsuddin AF, Basri M, Bin Basri H
Received 15 September 2017
Accepted for publication 1 December 2017
Published 27 April 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 2571—2584
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Alexander Kharlamov
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Siti Norhawani Harun,1 Syafinaz Amin Nordin,2 Siti Salwa Abd Gani,3,4 Ahmad Fuad Shamsuddin,5,6 Mahiran Basri,7 Hamidon Bin Basri1
1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 4Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 5Centre for Drug Delivery Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 6Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh, Malaysia; 7Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Background and aim: Drugs that are effective against diseases in the central nervous system and reach the brain via blood must pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB), a unique interface that protects against potential harmful molecules. This presents a major challenge in neuro-drug delivery. This study attempts to fabricate the cefuroxime-loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) to increase drug penetration into the brain when parenterally administered.
Methods: The nanoemulsions were formulated using a high-pressure homogenization technique and were characterized for their physicochemical properties.
Results: The characterizations revealed a particle size of 100.32±0.75 nm, polydispersity index of 0.18±0.01, zeta potential of -46.9±1.39 mV, viscosity of 1.24±0.34 cps, and osmolality of 285.33±0.58 mOsm/kg, indicating that the nanoemulsion has compatibility for parenteral application. CLN was physicochemically stable within 6 months of storage at 4°C, and the transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CLN droplets were almost spherical in shape. The in vitro release of CLN profile followed a sustained release pattern. The pharmacokinetic profile of CLN showed a significantly higher Cmax, area under the curve (AUC)0–t, prolonged half-life, and lower total plasma clearance, indicating that the systemic concentration of cefuroxime was higher in CLN-treated rats as compared to cefuroxime-free treated rats. A similar profile was obtained for the biodistribution of cefuroxime in the brain, in which CLN showed a significantly higher Cmax, AUC0–t, prolonged half-life, and lower clearance as compared to free cefuroxime solution.
Conclusion: Overall, CLN showed excellent physicochemical properties, fulfilled the requirements for parenteral administration, and presented improved in vivo pharmacokinetic profile, which reflected its practical approach to enhance cefuroxime delivery to the brain.
Keywords: parenteral nanoemulsion, cefuroxime, drug delivery, pharmacokinetics, blood–brain barrier
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