Development and Validation of the Hospital Outpatients’ Information Needs Questionnaire (HOINQ)
Received 21 December 2020
Accepted for publication 11 March 2021
Published 29 March 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 653—664
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Mònica Andreu-March,1 Margarita Aguas Compaired,1,2 Montserrat Pons Busom,1,2 Eduardo L Mariño,1 Pilar Modamio1
1Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028, Spain; 2Pharmacy Service, University Hospital Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, 08029, Spain
Correspondence: Pilar Modamio
Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, 27-31, Barcelona, 08028, Spain
Tel/Fax +34 934024544
Email [email protected]
Purpose: The main objective was to develop and validate a “Hospital Outpatients’ Information Needs Questionnaire” (HOINQ). Secondly, to identify patients’ preferred sources of information. Finally, to establish differences depending on the disease, as well as between sociodemographic and clinical variables.
Patients and Methods: This is a transversal study based on a questionnaire. All adult hospital outpatients’ who collected their medication at the Pharmacy Service were consecutively recruited, regardless of their diagnosis time, treatment or disease. The Spanish version of the internationally validated European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-25) aimed at oncology patients was used as the starting point. In order to be applicable on new target population, it was crucial to make several changes and ensure that it complies with the validity, viability and reliability criteria. The questionnaire prepared for validation was then obtained by a literature review (face validity), submitting the EORTC QLQ-25 to an expert committee (content validity), by piloting (viability) and Cronbach’s alpha statistical analysis (reliability). Once the questionnaire was completed, Cronbach’s alpha of the final study (reliability) and factor analysis (construct validity) were performed. Then, pertinent modifications were applied to obtain the HOINQ.
Results: A total of 153 outpatients filled the questionnaire, which was widely accepted and required 5– 10 min to complete. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients met criteria > 0.7. Three factors were established by factor analysis: aspects about the disease, pharmacological and no-pharmacological treatment and satisfaction and perception of the information received. Participants felt satisfied (41– 52%) with the information amount, quality and usefulness, although 1 out of 3 stated wanting to know more about the different information areas. Younger patients (P-value < 0.05) and those who had been attending the Pharmacy Service for a longer time span (P-value < 0.01) reported receiving more information. On a 0 to 7 scale, medical specialists (mean = 6.28, SD = 1.38) followed by the rest of health care professionals (mean = 4.23– 4.63, SD = 2.25– 2.29) were selected as the preferred sources of information. HIV patients reported being more informed, while those with rheumatoid arthritis felt less informed (P-value < 0.05).
Conclusion: The HOINQ was developed. It is a self-completed questionnaire, composed of three blocks: the 16-item information needs questionnaire, demographic and clinical variables, and patients’ preferred sources of information. It is an easy tool to use and replicate, both for patients and professionals.
Keywords: information needs, outpatients, pharmacy service, questionnaire validation
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