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Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms and Its Associated Factors Among Residents of Gondar Town During the Early Stage of COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors Akalu TY, Gelaye KA, Bishaw MA, Tilahun SY, Yeshaw Y, Azale T, Tsegaye T, Asmelash D, Akalu Y

Received 25 December 2020

Accepted for publication 25 February 2021

Published 15 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1073—1083

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S296796

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto


Temesgen Yihunie Akalu,1 Kassahun Alemu Gelaye,1 Mulat Addis Bishaw,2 Sewbesew Yitayih Tilahun,3 Yigizie Yeshaw,4 Telake Azale,5 Tewodros Tsegaye,2 Daniel Asmelash,6 Yonas Akalu4

1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Human Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 5Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 6Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Temesgen Yihunie Akalu
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, PO.Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Tel +251929390709
Email temesge[email protected]

Purpose: An acute respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus disease (COVID) was identified in late 2019. COVID-19 triggered a wide range of psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, and stress. However, studies on mental health status in developing countries including Ethiopia related to COVID-19 are very limited. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the magnitude of depression, anxiety, and stress, and their associated factors among Gondar town population during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Patients and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 660 residents of Gondar town in April 2020. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select study participants. A 21 item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) was used. Variables with a p-value < 0.05 in the final model were declared as statistically significant. Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test was used to check the model fitness.
Results: In this study, the prevalence of depression was 32.0% (95% CI: 28.4– 35.5), anxiety 25.8% (95% CI: 22.4– 29.1), and stress 14.7% (95% CI: 12.0– 17.4), respectively. The odds of developing depression was higher among female respondents (AOR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.83) and ever smokers (AOR=2.8, 95 CI: 1.23, 6.28) as compared to their counterparts. Besides, history of medical illness and ever smoking increase the odds of anxiety by 2.3 (AOR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.42– 3.76), and 2.8 (AOR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.23– 3.83), respectively. Furthermore, being unemployed and family size of < 5 increase the odds of stress by 2.1 (AOR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.17– 3.83) and 1.8 (AOR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09– 2.81), respectively.
Conclusion: In this study, the overall depression, anxiety, and stress were significantly high. There are number of factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Designing and implementing tailored strategies for COVID-19 prevention and control could be supremely important to reduce mental health problems in the community.

Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, COVID-19, Gondar

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