Comparison of image-assisted versus traditional fundus examination
Kristen Brown,1,2 Jeanette M Sewell,1,2 Clement Trempe,2 Tunde Peto,3 Thomas G Travison4,5
1New England College of Optometry, 2New England Eye Institute, Boston, MA, USA; 3NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of image-assisted fundus examination to detect retinal lesions compared with traditional fundus examination.
Methods: Subjects were imaged using a nonmydriatic ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscope. After imaging, subjects underwent both a traditional and an image-assisted fundus examination, in random order. During the image-assisted method, ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopic images were reviewed in conjunction with a dilated fundus examination. Lesions detected by each method were assigned to one of three regions, ie, optic disc, posterior pole/macula, or mid-to-peripheral retina. Discrepancies between the image-assisted and the traditional examination methods were adjudicated by a retinal ophthalmologist.
Results: In total, 170 subjects (339 eyes) were recruited. Agreement between image-assisted and traditional fundus examination varied by lesion type and was excellent for staphyloma (kappa 0.76), fair for suspicious cupping (kappa 0.66), drusen in the posterior pole/macula and mid-to-peripheral retina (0.45, 0.41), retinal pigment epithelial changes in the posterior pole/macula (0.54), peripheral retinal degeneration (0.50), cobblestone (0.69), vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (0.40), and vitreous lesions (0.53). Agreement was poor for hemorrhage in the mid-to-peripheral retina (kappa 0.33), and nevi in the mid-to-peripheral retina (0.34). When the methods disagreed, the results indicated a statistically significant advantage for the image-assisted examination in detecting suspicious cupping (P = 0.04), drusen in the posterior pole/macula and mid-to-peripheral retina (P = 0.004, P < 0.001), retinal pigment epithelial changes in the posterior pole/macula (P = 0.04), nevi in the posterior pole/macula and mid-to-peripheral retina (P = 0.01, P = 0.007), peripheral retinal degeneration (P < 0.001), hemorrhage in the mid-to-peripheral retina (P = 0.01), and vitreous lesions (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Image-assisted fundus examination may enhance detection of retinal lesions compared with traditional fundus examination alone.
Keywords: imaging, ultrawide field, image-assisted fundus examination
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