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Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

Authors George J, Sabapathi SN

Received 3 July 2015

Accepted for publication 8 September 2015

Published 4 November 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 45—54

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSA.S64386

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Haolin Liu

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Israel (Rudi) Rubinstein


Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi

Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted.

Keywords: sources of cellulose, mechanical properties, liquid crystalline nature, surface modification, nanocomposites
 

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