Associations between iron deficiency anemia and clinical features among pregnant women: a prospective cohort study
Received 24 May 2018
Accepted for publication 1 August 2018
Published 3 October 2018 Volume 2018:9 Pages 163—169
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth
This paper has been retracted
Saeed Baradwan, Abdullah Alyousef, Abdulrhman Turkistani
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy is a common and preventable disorder. It remains a contributing factor to maternal morbidity and mortality and is associated with high perinatal mortality rates.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of IDA and its associated clinical features among pregnant women.
Methods: This analytical prospective cohort study included 1,579 pregnant women who attended an antenatal clinic, Women’s Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2018 and April 2018. The type of anemia and its associated maternal and fetal outcomes were determined.
Results: About 702 women were confirmed to have IDA, with a prevalence of 44.5 %. Most women (79.8%) were younger than 35 years. A low hemoglobin concentration was reported in 45 % of participants. The major type of anemia was microcytic hypochromic anemia (98.7%). More than half of the participants (57.3%) reported use of iron supplementation during pregnancy. IDA anemia was highest in pregnant women with gravidity >8 in 40 (56.3%) compared to normal pregnant women 31 (43.7%), and lowest in those with gravidity ≤2 in 281 (41.4%) compared to normal pregnant women 397 (58.6%). The difference was statistically significant, P=0.024. Similarly, this type of anemia was highest in those with parity of >3 (53.3%) and lowest in nulliparous women (39.3%) compared to normal pregnant women (46.7%) and (60.7%), respectively. This was statistically significant P=0.002. IDA had significantly (P=0.012) lower spontaneous vaginal delivery rates compared with normal pregnant women (44.5% vs 55.5%, respectively). IDA had significantly (P=0.017) lower antenatal fetal distress rates compared with normal pregnant women (68.5% vs 31.5%, respectively).
Conclusion: Anemia in general and microcytic hypochromic anemia in particular were significantly associated with higher gravidity and parity. The significant outcome associated with IDA during pregnancy was a lower rate of spontaneous vaginal delivery and antenatal fetal distress. Compliance with iron supplementation in order to prevent maternal and fetal adverse outcomes was observed.
Keywords: microcytic hypochromic anemia, pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia
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