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Antibacterial properties and toxicity from metallic nanomaterials

Authors Vimbela GV, Ngo SM, Fraze C, Yang L, Stout DA

Received 12 February 2017

Accepted for publication 17 April 2017

Published 24 May 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3941—3965

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S134526

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun


Gina V Vimbela,1,* Sang M Ngo,2,* Carolyn Fraze,3 Lei Yang,4,5 David A Stout5–7

1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 3Brigham Young University Idaho, Rexburg, ID, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, 5International Research Center for Translational Orthopaedics (IRCTO), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The era of antibiotic resistance is a cause of increasing concern as bacteria continue to develop adaptive countermeasures against current antibiotics at an alarming rate. In recent years, studies have reported nanoparticles as a promising alternative to antibacterial reagents because of their exhibited antibacterial activity in several biomedical applications, including drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and imaging. Moreover, nanomaterial research has led to reports of a possible relationship between the morphological characteristics of a nanomaterial and the magnitude of its delivered toxicity. However, conventional synthesis of nanoparticles requires harsh chemicals and costly energy consumption. Additionally, the exact relationship between toxicity and morphology of nanomaterials has not been well established. Here, we review the recent advancements in synthesis techniques for silver, gold, copper, titanium, zinc oxide, and magnesium oxide nanomaterials and composites, with a focus on the toxicity exhibited by nanomaterials of multidimensions. This article highlights the benefits of selecting each material or metal-based composite for certain applications while also addressing possible setbacks and the toxic effects of the nanomaterials on the environment.

Keywords: antibacterial reagents, nanomaterials, synthesis, metals, nanostructure, nanoscale, antibiotic resistance, toxicity, drug delivery

Corrigendum for this paper has been published 

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