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Albumin binding and anticancer effect of magnesium oxide nanoparticles

Authors Behzadi E, Sarsharzadeh R, Nouri M, Attar F, Akhtari K, Shahpasand K, Falahati M

Received 4 September 2018

Accepted for publication 13 October 2018

Published 27 December 2018 Volume 2019:14 Pages 257—270


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Elham Behzadi,1,* Rozhin Sarsharzadeh,1,* Mina Nouri,1 Farnoosh Attar,2 Keivan Akhtari,3 Koorosh Shahpasand,4 Mojtaba Falahati5

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Food Industry and Agriculture, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran; 3Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran; 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Recently, nanomaterials have moved into biological and medicinal implementations like cancer therapy. Therefore, before clinical trials, their binding to plasma proteins like human serum albumin (HSA) and their cytotoxic effects against normal and cancer cell lines should be addressed.
Methods: Herein, the interaction of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) with HSA was studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and docking studies. Afterwards, the cytotoxic impacts of MgO NPs on human leukemia cell line (K562) and peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry assays to quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis.
Results: It was demonstrated that MgO NPs spontaneously form a static complex with HSA molecules through hydrophobic interactions. Docking study based on the size of NPs demonstrated that different linkages can be established between MgO NPs and HSA. The CD investigation explored that MgO NPs did not alter the secondary structure of HSA. Cellular studies revealed that MgO NPs induced cytotoxicity against K562 cell lines, whereas no adverse effects were detected on PBMCs up to optimum applied concentration of MgO NPs. It was exhibited that ROS production mediated by IC50 concentrations of MgO NPs caused apoptosis-associated cell death. The pre-incubation of K562 with ROS scavenger (curcumin) inhibited the impact of MgO NPs -based apoptosis on cell fate, revealing the upstream effect of ROS in our system.
Conclusion: In summary, MgO NPs may exhibit strong plasma distribution and mediate apoptosis by ROS induction in the cancer cell lines. These data demonstrate a safe aspect of MgO NPs on the proteins and normal cells and their application as a distinctive therapeutic approach in the cancer treatment.

Keywords: spectroscopy, anticancer, magnesium oxide, nanoparticles, albumin, K562 cells

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