Galantamine treatment in Alzheimer's disease: response and long-term outcome in a routine clinical setting
Åsa K Wallin, Carina Wattmo, Lennart Minthon
Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Background: In the absence of long-term, placebo-controlled studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease (AD), analysis of the results of open-label trials becomes crucial. This study aimed to explore the three-year effects of galantamine treatment, as well as subgroups of response and adherence to treatment.
Methods: Two hundred and eighty patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD were included in the prospective, open-label, multicenter Swedish Alzheimer Treatment Study, and received galantamine treatment. Efficacy measures included cognitive tests, ie, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), functional rating (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale [IADL]), and global rating. Assessments were carried out before treatment and every six months for a period of three years. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify response subgroups.
Results: After three years of treatment, the mean change from baseline was 2.6 points in MMSE and 5.6 points in ADAS-cog scores. Globally, half of the patients improved or remained unchanged for two years. Cluster analysis identified two response clusters. Cluster 1 included patients with low ability in ADAS-cog and IADL scores at baseline. Even though the patients in cluster 1 were older and less educated, they responded better at six months compared with patients in cluster 2. Cluster 2 included patients with better ADAS-cog and IADL scores at baseline. Patients in cluster 2 had a higher frequency of the APOE ε4 allele, a slower pretreatment progression rate, and remained in the study longer than those in cluster 1. Three-year completers (n = 129, 46%) received higher doses of galantamine compared with dropouts.
Conclusion: AD patients who received long-term galantamine treatment were cognitively and globally stabilized. Subgroup response analysis identified a better short-term response in older patients with lower cognitive and functional abilities at baseline, a faster pretreatment progression rate, and a lower incidence of the APOE ε4 allele. The galantamine dose was higher in the population of completers.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, long-term treatment, routine setting, cholinesterase inhibitor, galantamine, k-means cluster analysis, completion rates
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Readers of this article also read:
A cross-sectional study on perception of stigma by Chinese schizophrenia patients [Expression of concern]
Ren ZB, Wang HQ, Feng B, Gu CY, Ma YC, Chen H, Li BL, Liu LY
Published Date: 18 July 2014
Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM
Published Date: 16 April 2014
Published Date: 16 April 2014
Soosay Raj TA, Smith AM, Moore AS
Published Date: 5 December 2013
Qu X, Yao C, Wang J, Li Z, Zhang Z
Published Date: 26 April 2013
A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone
Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W
Published Date: 12 November 2012
Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS
Published Date: 27 July 2012
Published Date: 21 June 2012
Chen ZQ, Liu Y, Zhao JH, Wang L, Feng NP
Published Date: 30 March 2012