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Evaluation of glycine-bearing celecoxib derivatives as a colon-specific mutual prodrug acting on nuclear factor-κB, an anti-inflammatory target

Authors Lee S, Lee Y, Kim W, Nam J, Jeong S, Yoo J, Kim M, Moon HR, Jung Y

Received 13 May 2015

Accepted for publication 7 July 2015

Published 7 August 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 4227—4237


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Wei Duan

Sunyoung Lee,1,* Yonghyun Lee,1,2,* Wooseong Kim,1 Joon Nam,1 Seongkeun Jeong,1 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Min-Soo Kim,1 Hyung Ryong Moon,1 Yunjin Jung1

College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 2Bio-Nanomedicine Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: In an inflammatory state where HOCl is generated, glycine readily reacts with HOCl to produce glycine chloramine, an anti-inflammatory oxidant. Colonic delivery of celecoxib elicits anticolitic effects in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. Glycine-bearing celecoxib derivatives were prepared and evaluated as a colon-specific mutual prodrug acting on nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), an anticolitic target. Glycylcelecoxib (GC), N-glycylaspart-1-ylcelecoxib (N-GA1C), and C-glycylaspart-1-ylcelecoxib (C-GA1C) were synthesized and their structures identified using infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. The celecoxib derivatives were chemically stable in pH 6.8 and 1.2 buffers. GC and C-GA1C were resistant to degradation in the small intestinal contents, while N-GA1C was substantially cleaved to release celecoxib. In contrast, all the celecoxib derivatives were degraded to liberate celecoxib in the cecal content. These results suggest that GC and C-GA1C could be delivered to and liberate celecoxib and glycine in the large intestine. In human colon carcinoma HCT116 and murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, combined celecoxib–glycine chloramine treatment additively suppressed the production of proinflammatory NFκB target gene products. Collectively, our data suggest that C-GA1C is a potential colon-specific mutual prodrug acting against NFκB.

Keywords: colon-specific drug delivery, mutual prodrug, celecoxib, glycine chloramine, nuclear factor kappa-B

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