Rhinosinusitis in COPD: symptoms, mucosal changes, nasal lavage cells and eicosanoids
Violetta M Piotrowska1, Wojciech J Piotrowski2, Zofia Kurmanowska2, Jerzy Marczak2, PaweÅ‚ Górski2, Adam Antczak2
2Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 1Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
Abstract: The coexistence of upper airways disease with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well documented. The aim of this research was to assess sino-nasal inflammation in COPD by various tools, and look for the impact on quality of life, relation to smoking, disease severity and systemic inflammation. Current and ex-smokers with COPD (n = 42) and healthy never-smokers (n = 21) were included in this study. COPD severity was assessed by GOLD criteria and BODE index. Markers of systemic inflammation were measured. Nasal symptoms and general quality of life were assessed using the questionnaires; sino-nasal questionnaire (SNAQ-11) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Nasal endoscopy and saccharine test were performed. Nasal lavages were collected for cytological examination and eicosanoids (cysteinyl leukotrienes, leukotriene B4, 8-isoprostane). Symptoms and endoscopic scores were higher in COPD (P ≤ 0.0001). Only SGRQ symptoms subscore correlated with SNAQ-11 (r = 0.34, P = 0.035). Mucociliary clearance was impaired only in current smokers (9.91 ± 0.49 versus 13.12 ± 0.68 minutes, P ≤ 0.001). 8-isoprostane was higher in COPD smokers compared to the controls (0.17 ± 0.04 versus 0.34 ± 0.09 pg/g protein, P < 0.05). Endoscopic score and mucociliary of impairment patients who currently smoked cigarettes correlated with concentrations of 8-isoprostane. None of the parameters correlated with disease severity and markers of systemic inflammation. We provide evidence of upper airways disease in COPD, which appears to be related more to patients who currently smoke than to disease severity.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eicosanoids, nasal lavage, rhinitis, smoking, upper airways disease
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