Foveal atrophy and macular hole formation following intravitreal ranibizumab with/without photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration
Pukhraj Rishi, Nachiappan Kasinathan, Chinmaya Sahu
Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, 18 College Road, Chennai-600006. Tamil Nadu, India
Background: To report the occurrence of foveal atrophy and macular hole formation following intravitreal ranibizumab with or without photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization caused by age-related macular degeneration.
Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional case series, in which 78 eyes of 76 patients were treated for wet age-related macular degeneration between February 2007 and August 2007. Of these, three eyes developed foveal atrophy following treatment. Two eyes underwent combination photodynamic therapy and intravitreal ranibizumab, and one eye underwent intravitreal ranibizumab alone. One of the two eyes that underwent combination therapy progressed to develop a macular hole.
Results: On the first follow-up visit, all three eyes showed thinning of the fovea on optical coherence tomography. Subsequently, treatment was continued with repeat intravitreal ranibizumab injections. At the last follow-up, although choroidal neovascularization regressed in all eyes, extensive foveal atrophy developed in two eyes with macular hole formation in one eye.
Conclusion: The possibility of foveal atrophy and macular hole formation must be borne in mind before initiating ranibizumab in combination with or without photodynamic therapy. However, larger studies with longer follow-up are required to understand such adverse effects better.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, macular hole, foveal atrophy, photodynamic therapy, ranibizumab
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