Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding
Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel5
1Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Objective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day) in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs) on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.
Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.
Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively). Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001). Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.
Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.
Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Readers of this article also read:
Shahar E, Shahar DJ
Published Date: 22 January 2014
Sertoglu E, Uyanik M
Published Date: 20 December 2013
Shrinking the room for invasive mechanical ventilation in acute chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: yes, but must be sure to have opened windows for noninvasive ventilation
Rodriguez AME, Scala R, Ambrosino N
Published Date: 9 July 2013
Effects of Arthro-7® in relieving symptoms of osteoarthritis with mild to moderate arthralgia [Corrigendum]
Xie Q, Zhou T, Yen L, Shariff M, Nguyen T, Kami K, Gu P, Liang L, Rao J, Shi R
Published Date: 16 May 2013
Qu X, Yao C, Wang J, Li Z, Zhang Z
Published Date: 26 April 2013
Azelnidipine plus olmesartan versus amlodipine plus olmesartan on arterial stiffness and cardiac function in hypertensive patients: a randomized trial
Takami T, Saito Y
Published Date: 17 April 2013
Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in refractive surgery: a retrospective chart review of post-LASIK patients
Nielsen SA, McDonald MB, Majmudar PA
Published Date: 15 April 2013
Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens
Published Date: 31 March 2013
Published Date: 9 May 2012
Eduardo Pimenta, Suzanne Oparil
Published Date: 19 May 2009