Biomimetic three-dimensional nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotube chitosan nanocomposite for bone regeneration
Owen Im1, Jian Li2, Mian Wang2, Lijie Grace Zhang2,3, Michael Keidar2,3
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC; 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 3Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Institute for Nanotechnology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
Background: Many shortcomings exist in the traditional methods of treating bone defects, such as donor tissue shortages for autografts and disease transmission for allografts. The objective of this study was to design a novel three-dimensional nanostructured bone substitute based on magnetically synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), biomimetic hydrothermally treated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, and a biocompatible hydrogel (chitosan). Both nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT have a biomimetic nanostructure, excellent osteoconductivity, and high potential to improve the load-bearing capacity of hydrogels.
Methods: Specifically, three-dimensional porous chitosan scaffolds with different concentrations of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and SWCNT were created to support the growth of human osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) using a lyophilization procedure. Two types of SWCNT were synthesized in an arc discharge with a magnetic field (B-SWCNT) and without a magnetic field (N-SWCNT) for improving bone regeneration.
Results: Nanocomposites containing magnetically synthesized B-SWCNT had superior cytocompatibility properties when compared with nonmagnetically synthesized N-SWCNT. B-SWCNT have much smaller diameters and are twice as long as their nonmagnetically prepared counterparts, indicating that the dimensions of carbon nanotubes can have a substantial effect on osteoblast attachment.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a chitosan nanocomposite with both B-SWCNT and 20% nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite could achieve a higher osteoblast density when compared with the other experimental groups, thus making this nanocomposite promising for further exploration for bone regeneration.
Keywords: nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotube, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, chitosan, bone regeneration, biomimetic
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Readers of this article also read:
Fabrication of small-diameter vascular scaffolds by heparin-bonded P(LLA-CL) composite nanofibers to improve graft patency
Wang S, Mo XM, Jiang BJ, Gao CJ, Wang HS, Zhuang YG, Qiu LJ
Published Date: 7 June 2013
Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in refractive surgery: a retrospective chart review of post-LASIK patients
Nielsen SA, McDonald MB, Majmudar PA
Published Date: 15 April 2013
Published Date: 22 January 2013
Stewart MW, Stewart ML
Published Date: 31 December 2012
Emerging dermatological and systemic applications of ustekinumab: beyond its clinical use in psoriasis
Published Date: 21 June 2012
Delivery of a transforming growth factor β-1 plasmid to mesenchymal stem cells via cationized Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide nanoparticles
Deng WW, Cao X, Wang M, Qu R, Su WY, Yang Y, Wei YW, Xu XM, Yu JN
Published Date: 14 March 2012
Yang B, Gong C, Zhao X, Zhou S, Li Z, Qi X, Zhong Q, Luo F, Qian Z
Published Date: 2 February 2012
Published Date: 29 June 2011
The effects of diet-induced obesity on hepatocyte insulin signaling pathways and induction of non-alcoholic liver damage
Sameer Fatani, Imose Itua, Paul Clark, et al
Published Date: 15 March 2011
Paul A Bourne, Chloe Morris, Christopher AD Charles, et al
Published Date: 26 May 2010