Biological correlates of migraine and cluster headaches: an overview of their potential use in diagnosis and treatment
Aron D Mosnaim1, Javier Puente1,2, Marion E Wolf3
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Rosalind Franklin University, Chicago Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3International Neuropsychiatry Consultants, Highland Park, IL, USA
Abstract: Current diagnostic criteria for headaches are based on the International Classification for Headache Disorders, second edition, which is largely built on data obtained from clinical examinations and patients' medical histories. Despite decades of vigorous basic and clinical research, we still lack reliable clinical laboratory diagnostic markers for headaches, which clearly obstructs the physician's ability to optimize and follow the patient's response to treatment protocols as well as holds back the discovery and implementation of new therapeutic modalities. In this paper, we review and discuss current efforts to identify and characterize biochemical and immunological changes in biological fluids and tissue that may be specifically associated with the etiology and/or pathophysiology of migraine and cluster headaches; we also discuss some of the recent genetic findings and ion channel modulation studies that may help to distinguish among various headache populations.
Keywords: biochemical, immunological, genetic alterations, pain, enkephalin degradation kinetics, enkephalin aminopeptidase
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php