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Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated liposomes incorporated with cardiolipin to improve neuronal survival in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

Authors Kuo YC, Lin CY, Li JS, Lou YI

Received 22 November 2016

Accepted for publication 31 January 2017

Published 2 March 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1757—1774

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S128396

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Yung-Chih Kuo,1 Che-Yu Lin,1 Jay-Shake Li,2 Yung-I Lou3

1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Psychology, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 3Department of Accounting, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China

Abstract: Curcumin (CRM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were entrapped in liposomes (LIP) with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to downregulate the phosphorylation of kinases in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapy. Cardiolipin (CL)-conjugated LIP carrying CRM (CRM-CL/LIP) and also carrying NGF (NGF-CL/LIP) were used with AD models of SK-N-MC cells and Wistar rats after an insult with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). We found that CRM-CL/LIP inhibited the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and p-tau protein at serine 202 and prevented neurodegeneration of SK-N-MC cells. In addition, NGF-CL/LIP could enhance the quantities of p-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 for neuronal rescue. Moreover, WGA-grafted CRM-CL/LIP and WGA-grafted NGF-CL/LIP significantly improved the permeation of CRM and NGF across the blood–brain barrier, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and the malondialdehyde level, and increased the percentage of normal neurons and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of AD rats. Based on the marker expressions and in vivo evidence, current LIP carriers can be promising drug delivery systems to protect nervous tissue against Aβ-induced apoptosis in the brain during the clinical management of AD.

Keywords: liposome, Alzheimer’s disease, β-amyloid, neurodegeneration, blood–brain barrier, wheat germ agglutinin

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