Vitamin D receptor gene TaqI and Apal polymorphisms and steroid responsiveness in childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Authors Al-Eisa A, Haider MZ
Received 27 April 2016
Accepted for publication 5 June 2016
Published 5 August 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 187—192
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal
Amal A Al-Eisa, Mohammad Z Haider
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
Background: Vitamin D activity is controlled by vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are affected by different genetic polymorphisms, including TaqI and Apal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which have been reported to be associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and steroid responsiveness in Kuwaiti children.
Subjects and methods: Genotypes of the VDR TaqI gene polymorphism and the Apal gene polymorphism were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-RFLP in 78 INS patients and 56 matched controls.
Results: A total of 78 INS (62 steroid sensitive [SS] and 16 steroid resistant [SR]) patients with a mean age of 6.5±3.1 years were studied. Male:female ratio was 2:1. The TT genotype of VDR–TaqI polymorphism was detected in 41% of the INS patients compared to 42% of the controls (P=0.816). The heterozygous TC genotype was detected in 33% of INS patients compared to 46% of the controls (P=0.462). The CC genotype was detected in 25.6% of INS patients and 21% of the controls (P=0.719). The C-allele frequency, in its homozygous and heterozygous forms, was 71% in INS patients compared to 63% in the controls (P=0.342). Similarly, no significant difference was detected in terms of VDR–Apal polymorphism in INS patients compared to the controls for all the three genotypes (P=0.76, P=0.207, and P=0.364, respectively, for GG, GT, and TT genotypes). The T-allele frequency, in its homozygous and heterozygous forms, was 89% in INS patients compared to 93% in the controls (P=0.076). No significant difference was found in any of the allele frequencies between SS and SR subgroups when compared with each other or when compared to the controls.
Conclusion: Our data do not support the use of VDR–TaqI or –Apal gene polymorphisms as genetic markers of INS nor do they predict steroid responsiveness in children with the disease.
Keywords: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, steroid sensitive, steroid resistant, genotype, polymorphism
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