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Vascular Calcification: An Important Understanding in Nephrology

Authors Zununi Vahed S, Mostafavi S, Hosseiniyan Khatibi SM, Shoja MM, Ardalan M

Received 21 December 2019

Accepted for publication 17 April 2020

Published 12 May 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 167—180


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Harry Struijker-Boudier

Sepideh Zununi Vahed,1 Soroush Mostafavi,1 Seyed Mahdi Hosseiniyan Khatibi,1 Mohammadali M Shoja,2 Mohammadreza Ardalan1

1Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA

Correspondence: Mohammadreza Ardalan
Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Tel +98 914 116 8518
Fax +98 41 3336 65 79

Abstract: Vascular calcification (VC) is a life-threatening state in chronic kidney disease (CKD). High cardiovascular mortality and morbidity of CKD cases may root from medial VC promoted by hyperphosphatemia. Vascular calcification is an active, highly regulated, and complex biological process that is mediated by genetics, epigenetics, dysregulated form of matrix mineral metabolism, hormones, and the activation of cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, gut microbiome as a source of uremic toxins (eg, phosphate, advanced glycation end products and indoxyl-sulfate) can be regarded as a potential contributor to VC in CKD. Here, an update on different cellular and molecular processes involved in VC in CKD is discussed to elucidate the probable therapeutic pathways in the future.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, CKD, uremic toxins, hyperphosphatemia, uremia, calcification

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