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Validation of the FCV-19 Scale and Assessment of Fear of COVID-19 in the Population of Mozambique, East Africa

Authors Giordani RCF, Giolo SR, Muhl C, Estavela AJ, Mabuie Gove JI

Received 24 December 2020

Accepted for publication 2 March 2021

Published 19 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 345—354

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S298948

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman


Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani,1 Suely Ruiz Giolo,2 Camila Muhl,3 Arune João Estavela,4 Janete Ismael Mabuie Gove4

1Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil; 2Department of Statistics, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil; 3Department of Psychology, FAE University, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil; 4High Institute of Health Sciences, Maputo, Mozambique

Correspondence: Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, 80210-170, Brazil
Tel +55 41 3360 4056
Email [email protected]

Purpose: This study aimed to validate the Portuguese version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and investigate its association with sociodemographic and pandemic-related variables in the population of Mozambique.
Participants and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey recruited 387 Mozambicans aged 18 to 70 years. The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the FCV-19S were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and Rash analysis. Additionally, the association of the FCV-19S with sociodemographic and pandemic-related variables was investigated using the two-sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression.
Results: The unidimensional factor structure of the Portuguese version of the FCV-19S was confirmed, and the scale showed good internal consistency reliability. The FCV-19S properties tested from the Rasch analysis were satisfactory. Women and those with lower education levels had higher scores of fear. Moreover, significantly higher levels of fear were observed among those being in an at-risk group for COVID-19, having family members or friends diagnosed or with death confirmed by COVID-19, and not being confident that they would receive adequate care from the public health services in case of COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: The Portuguese version of FCV-19S has strong psychometric properties and can be used to assess the fear of COVID-19 in the Portuguese-speaking population of Mozambique. As the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health represents a challenge to clinical psychiatry, and information on mental health in African countries is still scarce, our findings may assist in the planning of public mental health policies, aimed mainly at specific segments of the population, such as women and people in extreme poverty.

Keywords: mental health, fear scale, infection, pandemic, psychometrics

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