Back to Journals » Vascular Health and Risk Management » Volume 9

Vacuum-venipuncture skills: time required and importance of tube order

Authors Fujii C

Received 10 June 2013

Accepted for publication 1 July 2013

Published 5 August 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 457—464


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Chieko Fujii

Faculty of Nursing and Medical Care, Keio University, Fujisawa, Japan

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess specific vacuum-venipuncture skills and the influence of the time involved in skin puncture and blood collection.
Methods: Thirty subjects undergoing venipuncture in which video analysis was possible were included. These procedures were carried out by four nurses and recorded with a digital camera. Venipuncture skills classified by our observations were delineated on the basis of frame-by-frame video images, and a graph of x and y coordinates was created.
Results: With the first blood-collection tube, strong blood flow required the practitioner to push the tube back in to compensate for the strong repulsive force in approximately 46% of cases. By the third blood-collection tube, the blood flow had weakened; therefore, the tube was moved up and down. In cases that required a second venipuncture, the tube was already pierced, so the time required to fill it to 5 mL was significantly longer.
Conclusion: Hand movement of the practitioner is adjusted according to blood flow. Reflex movement in response to strong blood flow may increase the risk of pushing the needle through the vein with excessive force. The time required to fill the tube varies among nurses, tube order, and level of venipuncture skills.

Keywords: blood collection, blood-collection tube, clinical practice, venipuncture skill

Creative Commons License © 2013 The Author(s). This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.