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Using ferromagnetic nanoparticles with low Curie temperature for magnetic resonance imaging-guided thermoablation

Authors Herynek V, Turnovcova K, Veverka P, Dedourkova T, Žvátora P, Jendelova P, Gálisová A, Kosinová L, Jiráková K, Syková E

Received 31 March 2016

Accepted for publication 25 May 2016

Published 8 August 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 3801—3811

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S109582

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas Webster


Vít Herynek,1 Karolína Turnovcová,2 Pavel Veverka,3 Tereza Dědourková,4,5 Pavel Žvátora,6 Pavla Jendelová,2 Andrea Gálisová,1 Lucie Kosinová,7 Klára Jiráková,2 Eva Syková2

1MR-Unit, Radiodiagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, 2Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, 3Department of Magnetics and Superconductors, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, 4Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 5SYNPO, akciová společnost, Pardubice, 6Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, 7Diabetes Center, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

Introduction:
Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) represent a tool for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided thermoablation of tumors using an external high-frequency (HF) magnetic field. To avoid local overheating, perovskite NPs with a lower Curie temperature (Tc) were proposed for use in thermotherapy. However, deposited power decreases when approaching the Curie temperature and consequently may not be sufficient for effective ablation. The goal of the study was to test this hypothesis.
Methods: Perovskite NPs (Tc =66°C–74°C) were characterized and tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the cells suspended with NPs were exposed to a HF magnetic field together with control samples. In vivo, a NP suspension was injected into a induced tumor in rats. Distribution was checked by MRI and the rats were exposed to a HF field together with control animals. Apoptosis in the tissue was evaluated.
Results and discussion: In vitro, the high concentration of suspended NPs caused an increase of the temperature in the cell sample, leading to cell death. In vivo, MRI confirmed distribution of the NPs in the tumor. The temperature in the tumor with injected NPs did not increase substantially in comparison with animals without particles during HF exposure. We proved that the deposited power from the NPs is too small and that thermoregulation of the animal is sufficient to conduct the heat away. Histology did not detect substantially higher apoptosis in NP-treated animals after ablation.
Conclusion: Magnetic particles with low Tc can be tracked in vivo by MRI and heated by a HF field. The particles are capable of inducing cell apoptosis in suspensions in vitro at high concentrations only. However, their effect in the case of extracellular deposition in vivo is questionable due to low deposited power and active thermoregulation of the tissue.

Keywords: perovskite nanoparticles, hyperthermia, high-frequency magnetic field, MRI, tumor ablation

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