Use of Silver Nanomaterials for Caries Prevention: A Concise Review
Received 13 March 2020
Accepted for publication 22 April 2020
Published 6 May 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 3181—3191
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Iris Xiaoxue Yin,1– 3 Irene Shuping Zhao,1 May Lei Mei,4 Quanli Li,5 Ollie Yiru Yu,3 Chun Hung Chu2,3
1School of Dentistry, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2HKU Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Otago, New Zealand; 5College of Stomatology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Irene Shuping Zhao
School of Dentistry, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 18823781964
Chun Hung Chu
Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Tel +852 2859 0287
Fax +852 2858 2532
Objective: The aim of this concise review is to summarize the use of silver nanomaterials for caries prevention.
Methods: Two researchers independently performed a literature search of publications in English using Embase, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases. The keywords used were (silver nanoparticles OR AgNPs OR nano silver OR nano-silver) AND (caries OR tooth decay OR remineralisation OR remineralization). They screened the title and abstract to identify potentially eligible publications. They then retrieved the full texts of the identified publications to select original research reporting silver nanomaterials for caries prevention.
Results: The search identified 376 publications, and 66 articles were included in this study. The silver nanomaterials studied were categorized as resin with silver nanoparticles (n=31), silver nanoparticles (n=21), glass ionomer cement with silver nanoparticles (n=7), and nano silver fluoride (n=7). Most (59/66, 89%) studies investigated the antibacterial properties, and they all found that silver nanomaterials inhibited the adhesion and growth of cariogenic bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. Although silver nanomaterials were used as anti-caries agents, only 11 (11/66, 17%) studies reported the effects of nanomaterials on the mineral content of teeth. Eight of them are laboratory studies, and they found that silver nanomaterials prevented the demineralization of enamel and dentin under an acid or cariogenic biofilm challenge. The remaining three are clinical trials that reported that silver nanomaterials prevented and arrested caries in children.
Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles have been used alone or with resin, glass ionomer, or fluoride for caries prevention. Silver nanomaterials inhibit the adhesion and growth of cariogenic bacteria. They also impede the demineralization of enamel and dentin.
Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, fluoride, caries, remineralization, nanomaterials