Use of nepafenac (Nevanac®) in combination with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration requiring monthly injections
Eric Chen, Matthew S Benz, Richard H Fish, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Rosa Y Kim, James C Major
Retina Consultants of Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of combining topical nepafenac with monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration.
Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series of patients with exudative macular degeneration requiring maintenance therapy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections at least every 6 weeks, who were started on topical nepafenac. Despite frequent anti-VEGF dosing, all patients included in the study had persistence of any combination of the following: intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Patients underwent pinhole visual acuity, clinical exam, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) at baseline and every follow-up visit. Response to therapy was graded by reviewing quantitative and qualitative OCT data, and statistical analysis was done with paired Student’s t-test.
Results: Twenty-five patients (average age 77; 14 male and 11 female) were reviewed; the mean number of previous injections was 17.4 (range 3–31). Baseline mean visual acuity was 20/55, and final mean visual acuity after 3 months of treatment was 20/51 (P = 0.13). Monthly mean central foveal thickness measurements were 248, 250, 257, and 247 µm (P = 0.53) at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. By the end of the 3-month time point, qualitative OCT findings on 13 patients treated with nepafenac were classified as stable, 10 as better, and 2 as worse.
Conclusions: There was no significant change in visual acuity or quantitative OCT measurements, but there appeared to be a mild trend toward improved anatomy and qualitative OCT findings when topical nepafenac was added to monthly anti-VEGF injections in patients with persistent intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be warranted.
Keywords: anti-VEGF, combination therapy, exudative macular degeneration, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, optical coherence tomography