Use of DPP-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: focus on sitagliptin
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Abstract: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) prevents the inactivation of glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1). This increases circulating levels of active GLP-1, stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion, which results in lowering of glucose levels and improvement of the glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes experiences with DPP-4 inhibition in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with a focus on sitagliptin. Sitagliptin has in several clinical studies been shown to improve metabolic control in type 2 diabetes, both when used as monotherapy and when used in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinediones or insulin. The reduction in HbA1c is ≈0.6% to 1.0% from baseline levels of 7.5% to 8.7% over 6 to 12 months therapy. Sitagliptin has a favorable safety profile, is highly tolerable, and there is a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, sitagliptin is body weight neutral or induces a slight body weight reduction. Sitagliptin may be used in the early stages of type 2 diabetes in combination with metformin or other treatments in subjects with inadequate glycemic control on these treatments alone. Sitagliptin may also be used in monotherapy and, finally, sitagliptin may be used in combination with insulin in more advanced stages of the disease.
Keywords: glucagon-like peptide-1, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, type 2 diabetes, sitagliptin, treatment
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