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Use of basal insulin and the associated clinical outcomes among elderly nursing home residents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective chart review study

Authors Davis KL, Wei W, Meyers J, Kilpatrick B, Pandya N

Received 3 April 2014

Accepted for publication 20 June 2014

Published 23 October 2014 Volume 2014:9 Pages 1815—1822

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S65411

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


Keith L Davis,1 Wenhui Wei,2 Juliana L Meyers,1 Brett S Kilpatrick,3 Naushira Pandya4

1RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Sanofi US, Inc, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 3AnalytiCare, LLC, Glenview, IL, USA; 4Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Background: The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in long-term care (LTC) settings can be complex as a result of age-related complications. Despite guideline recommendations, sliding scale insulin remains commonplace in the LTC setting and data on basal insulin use are lacking.
Methods: This retrospective study used medical chart data and the Minimum Data Set from elderly LTC facility patients who received basal insulin (insulin glargine, insulin detemir, or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin) for the treatment of diabetes, to investigate the practice patterns and associated clinical outcomes.
Results: A total of 2,096 elderly, insulin-treated patients in LTC were identified, with 59.5% of them (N=1,247) receiving basal insulin. Of these, more than 50% of patients received sliding scale insulin in co-administration with basal insulin. Despite its ease of use, insulin pen use was very low, at 14.6%. Significant differences were observed between the basal insulin groups for glycated hemoglobin level and dosing frequency. Hypoglycemia was uncommon -17.2% of patients experienced at least one event, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypoglycemia between the groups.
Conclusion: These data suggest the underutilization of basal insulin in the LTC setting and worryingly high combinational use with sliding scale insulin. Differences in glycated hemoglobin and dosing frequencies between types of basal insulin warrant further comparative effectiveness studies.

Keywords: long-term care, nursing homes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, NPH insulin

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