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Urothelial carcinoma: the evolving landscape of immunotherapy for patients with advanced disease

Authors Dietrich B, Srinivas S

Received 8 October 2017

Accepted for publication 26 December 2017

Published 26 January 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 7—16


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli

Brian Dietrich,1 Sandy Srinivas2

1Department of Hematology/Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine/Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Department of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine/Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA, USA

Abstract: Urothelial carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy in the US. While most patients present with non-muscle-invasive disease, many will develop recurrent disease including some progressing to muscle invasive metastatic cancer. Treatment outcomes have remained poor and stagnant for those with more advanced illness, with typical 5-year survival rates in the range of ≤15%. While first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the current standard for those eligible, the recent incorporation of checkpoint inhibitors into the management of advanced bladder cancer has resulted in an expansion of treatment options for a difficult-to-treat disease. This review will discuss the historic standard treatment options, followed by the more recent evolving role immune therapy has in the management of bladder cancer.

Keywords: urothelial, immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitor, bladder cancer

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