Uptake and transport of a novel anticancer drug-delivery system: lactosyl-norcantharidin-associated N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers
Min Guan1, Qiao-Ling Zhu1, Yang Liu1, Yong-Yan Bei1, Zong-Lin Gu1, Xue-Nong Zhang1, Qiang Zhang2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China
Abstract: In this paper, novel liver-targeting nanoparticles (NPs), lactosyl-norcantharidin (Lac-NCTD)-associated N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) NPs (Lac-NCTD-TMC-NPs), were prepared using ionic cross-linkage. The physical properties, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles were then investigated. The continuous line of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) cell monolayer model was used to study the transport mechanism of Lac-NCTD, and the effects of factors such as time, temperature, pH level, drug concentration, enhancers, and inhibitors. This model was also used to indicate the differences among Lac-NCTD, Lac-NCTD-associated chitosan NPs (Lac-NCTD-CS-NPs), and Lac-NCTD-TMC-NPs in the absorption and transportation of membranes. Drug concentration levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Active transport and paracellular transport were suggested to be both the primary and secondary mechanisms for Lac-NCTD absorption, respectively. Lac-NCTD uptake and absorption were not controlled by pH levels, but were positively correlated to uptake time, and negatively correlated to temperature. The basolateral to apical apparent permeability coefficients (Papps) were higher than those of the apical to basolateral values. The inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 significantly enhanced the uptake amount of Lac-NCTD. Compared with Lac-NCTD, Lac-NCTD-CS-NPs and Lac-NCTD-TMC-NPs significantly enhanced drug absorption. Additionally, the latter exhibited stronger action. Lac-NCTD-NPs could penetrate the plasma membrane of Caco-2 cells and translocate into the cytoplasm and even into the nucleus.
Nanoparticles were uptaken into Caco-2 cells through the endocytosis pathway.
Keywords: Lac-NCTD, Lac-NCTD-TMC-NPs, Caco-2 cell, transport
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