Upregulation of inflammatory genes in the nasal mucosa of patients undergoing endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy
Authors Penttilä E, Hyttinen J, Hytti M, Kauppinen A, Smirnov G, Tuomilehto H, Seppä J, Nuutinen J, Kaarniranta K
Received 19 June 2013
Accepted for publication 20 December 2013
Published 25 April 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 799—805
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Elina Penttilä,1 Juha MT Hyttinen,2 Maria Hytti,2 Anu Kauppinen,2,3 Grigori Smirnov,1,4 Henri Tuomilehto,1,4 Juha Seppä,1 Juhani Nuutinen,1 Kai Kaarniranta2,3
1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kuopio University Hospital, and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, 4Oivauni Sleep Clinic, Kuopio, Finland
Background: Epiphora is a common complaint of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in adults. The precise pathogenesis of NLDO is still unknown, but inflammatory processes are believed to be predisposing factors. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EN-DCR) is an effective surgical technique for treating symptomatic NLDO. The purpose of the procedure is to relieve the patient's symptoms by creating an opening, ie, a rhinostoma, between the lacrimal sac and the nasal cavity. Although the success rates after EN-DCR are high, the procedure sometimes fails due to onset of a fibrotic process at the rhinostomy site. The aim of this prospective comparative study was to investigate inflammation-related gene expression in the nasal mucosa at the rhinostomy site.
Methods: Ten participants were consecutively recruited from eligible adult patients who underwent primary powered EN-DCR (five patients) or septoplasty (five controls). Nasal mucosa specimens were taken from the rhinostomy site at the beginning of surgery for analysis of gene expression. Specimens were taken from the same site on the lateral nasal wall for controls. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for the inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, and CCL2, and because of a clear trend of increased inflammation in the EN-DCR samples, a wider PCR array was performed to compare inflammation-related gene expression in EN-DCR subjects and corresponding controls.
Results: Our qRT-PCR results revealed a clear trend of increased transcription of IL-6, IL-1ß, and CCL2 (P=0.03). The same trend was also evident in the PCR array, which additionally revealed notable differences between EN-DCR subjects and controls with regard to expression of several other inflammation-related mediators. At 6-month follow-up, the success rate after primary EN-DCR was 60%, ie, in three of five patients.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that there is an intense inflammation gene expression response in the nasal mucosa of patients undergoing EN-DCR.
Keywords: epiphora, fibrosis, dacryocystorhinostomy, gene expression, inflammation, nasolacrimal duct obstruction
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