Update on thyroid eye disease and management
Erick D Bothun,1,2 Ryan A Scheurer,1 Andrew R Harrison,1,3 Michael S Lee1,4,5
1Departments of Ophthalmology, 2Pediatrics, 3Otolaryngology, 4Neurosurgery, and 5Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Abstract: Thyroid eye disease is a heterogeneous autoimmune orbital reaction typically manifesting in middle age. The inflammation may parallel or remain isolated from a related inflammatory cascade in the thyroid called Graves’ disease. The orbital manifestations can lead to severe proptosis, dry eyes, strabismus, and optic neuropathy. In this article, we will discuss this unique condition including the ophthalmic findings and management.
Keywords: Graves’ disease, thyroid eye disease, proptosis, orbital decompression, enlarged extraocular muscles
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