Update on optimal use of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of ADHD
Vishal Madaan, Venkata Kolli, Durga P Bestha, Manan J Shah
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Family Psychiatry, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Abstract: Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) has been a recent addition to the treatment armamentarium for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is unique among stimulants as it is a prodrug, and has been found to be safe and well-tolerated medication in children older than 6 years, adolescents and adults. It has a smooth onset of action, exerts its action up to 13 hours and may have less rebound symptoms. LDX has proven to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in placebo controlled trials, and improved performance in simulated academic and work environments have been noticed. Both stimulant naïve and stimulant-exposed patients with ADHD appear to benefit from LDX. It has also shown some promise in improving emotional expression and executive function of patients with ADHD. Adverse effects such as decrease in sleep, loss of appetite and others have been reported with LDX use, just as with other stimulant formulations. Since most such studies exclude subjects with preexisting cardiac morbidity, prescribing precautions should be taken with LDX in such subjects, as with any other stimulant. Study subjects on LDX have been reported to have low scores on drug likability scales, even with intravenous use; as a result, LDX may have somewhat less potential for abuse and diversion. There is a need for future studies comparing other long acting stimulants with LDX in ADHD; in fact clinical trials comparing LDX with OROS (osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system) methylphenidate are currently underway. Furthermore, the utility of this medication in other psychiatric disorders and beyond ADHD is being investigated.
Keywords: lisdexamfetamine, ADHD, functional impairment, pharmacotherapy
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