Back to Journals » Reports in Medical Imaging » Volume 7

Update on non-invasive imaging for congenital heart disease: an additional dimension

Authors Weigand J, Chelliah A, Lai W

Received 2 June 2014

Accepted for publication 29 July 2014

Published 2 December 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 95—107


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Tarik Massoud

Justin D Weigand, Anjali Chelliah, Wyman W Lai

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA

Abstract: In the past three decades, technical advances in cardiovascular imaging have created a better balance in the requisite trade-off between spatial versus temporal resolution that is inherent to all dynamic imaging modalities. This update focuses on two techniques in which the advances in computer and engineering technologies have allowed for an additional dimension of imaging for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). The development of matrix array probes has propelled three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography into a routinely available tool for the assessment of valvular dysfunction, structural abnormalities, and ventricular size and function. Recent advances in time-resolved 3D velocity mapping, widely known as four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance, have significantly improved our ability to assess the hemodynamic abnormalities associated with CHD. These advances have allowed for significantly increased amounts of data to be collected, with further improvements expected. Their current applications in patients with CHD are reviewed. Future studies will help to define the roles of these advanced technologies in routine clinical care.

Keywords: cardiac magnetic resonance, congenital heart disease, echocardiography, four-dimensional flow, three-dimensional echocardiography

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]