Back to Journals » Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma » Volume 2

Untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: outcome and prognostic factors

Authors Zeeneldin A, Salem SE, Darwish A, El-Gammal M, Hussein M, Saadeldin M

Received 6 September 2014

Accepted for publication 14 October 2014

Published 30 January 2015 Volume 2015:2 Pages 3—9


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ahmed Kaseb

Ahmed Abdelmabood Zeeneldin,1 Salem Eid Salem,1 Amira Diaa Darwish,1 Mosaad Mahmoud El-Gammal,1 Marwa Mahmoud Hussein,1 Mohamed Saadeldin2

1Medical Oncology/Hematology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Medical Oncology, Tanta Cancer Center, Tanta, Egypt

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis C and B, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors.
Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) of untreated HCC in Egypt.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Tanta Cancer Center, Egypt where 288 HCC cases who received no specific therapy and were followed-up until death were identified. The impact of possible prognostic factors on OS was assessed using the log-rank test (univariate analyses) and Cox regression method (multivariate analysis).
Results: The median OS of untreated HCC was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.6). The 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months OS rates were 84%, 42%, 21%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. All cases had died by 46 months. Male sex, advanced Child-Pugh class, the clinical presentation of ascites, cough, fatigue, and the presence of metastases were associated with poor survival (P<0.05 for all). In multivariate analysis; cough, presence of ascites, and Child-Pugh class were independent predictors of poor survival.
Conclusion: OS in untreated HCC in Egypt is very short. Many factors interact to produce this dismal survival.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, Egypt, prognosis, survival

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]