Trospium chloride: an update on a quaternary anticholinergic for treatment of urge urinary incontinence
Authors David RP Guay
Published 15 July 2005 Volume 2005:1(2) Pages 157—166
David RP Guay
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Abstract: Trospium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound, which is a competitive antagonist at muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Preclinical studies using porcine and human detrusor muscle strips demonstrated that trospium chloride was many-fold more potent than oxybutynin and tolterodine in inhibiting contractile responses to carbachol and electrical stimulation. The drug is poorly bioavailable orally (< 10%) and food reduces absorption by 70%– 80%. It is predominantly eliminated renally as unchanged compound. Trospium chloride, dosed 20 mg twice daily, is significantly superior to placebo in improving cystometric parameters, reducing urinary frequency, reducing incontinence episodes, and increasing urine volume per micturition. In active-controlled trials, trospium chloride was at least equivalent to immediate-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine in efficacy and tolerability. The most problematic adverse effects of trospium chloride are the anticholinergic effects of dry mouth and constipation. Comparative efficacy/tolerability data with long-acting formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine as well as other anticholinergics such as solifenacin and darifenacin are not available. On the basis of available data, trospium chloride does not appear to be a substantial advance upon existing anticholinergics in the management of urge urinary incontinence.
Keywords: urge incontinence, trospium, anticholinergic, overactive bladder