Back to Browse Journals » International Journal of Women's Health » Volume 5

Triptolide induces lysosomal-mediated programmed cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

Authors Owa C, Messina Jr ME, Halaby R

Published Date September 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 557—569

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S44074

Received 19 February 2013, Accepted 24 May 2013, Published 5 September 2013

Chie Owa, Michael E Messina Jr, Reginald Halaby

Department of Biology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA

Background: Breast cancer is a major cause of death; in fact, it is the most common type, in order of the number of global deaths, of cancer in women worldwide. This research seeks to investigate how triptolide, an extract from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, induces apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for lysosomal proteases in the activation of apoptosis. However, there is also some controversy regarding the direct participation of lysosomal proteases in activation of key apoptosis-related caspases and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. In the present study, we demonstrate that triptolide induces an atypical, lysosomal-mediated apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells because they lack caspase-3.
Methods: MCF-7 cell death was characterized via cellular morphology, chromatin condensation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric cell growth inhibition assay and the expression levels of proapoptotic proteins. Acridine orange and LysoTracker® staining were performed to visualize lysosomes. Lysosomal enzymatic activity was monitored using an acid phosphatase assay and western blotting of cathepsin B protein levels in the cytosolic fraction, which showed increased enzymatic activity in drug-treated cells.
Results: These experiments suggest that triptolide-treated MCF-7 cells undergo atypical apoptosis and that, during the early stages, lysosomal enzymes leak into the cytosol, indicating lysosomal membrane permeability.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that further studies are warranted to investigate triptolide's potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent.

Keywords: triptolide, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, apoptosis, lysosomes, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

Readers of this article also read:

Shared decision-making in the People’s Republic of China: current status and future directions

Huang RC, Gionfriddo MR, Zhang LZ, Leppin AL, Ting HH, Montori VM

Patient Preference and Adherence 2015, 9:1129-1141

Published Date: 6 August 2015

The association between chronic pain and obesity

Okifuji A, Hare BD

Journal of Pain Research 2015, 8:399-408

Published Date: 14 July 2015

Impact of noncommunicable diseases in the State of Qatar

Al-Kaabi SK, Atherton A

ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research 2015, 7:377-385

Published Date: 2 July 2015

Oxidative stress and antibacterial properties of a graphene oxide-cystamine nanohybrid

Nanda SS, An SS, Yi DK

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:549-556

Published Date: 12 January 2015

Worldwide increase in diabetes: implications for tuberculosis control

Fisher-Hoch SP

Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine 2014, 5:35-44

Published Date: 3 July 2014

Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in healthy Chinese subjects [Corrigendum]

Cui Y, Song Y, Wang J, Yu Z, Schuster A, Barrett YC, Frost C

Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 2014, 6:61-62

Published Date: 27 March 2014