Back to Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 12

Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES # 2) Rayagada school screening program: efficacy of multistage screening of school teachers in detection of impaired vision and other ocular anomalies

Authors Panda L, Das T, Nayak S, Barik U, Mohanta BC, Williams J, Warkad V, Tapas Kumar GP, Khanna RC

Received 3 January 2018

Accepted for publication 7 April 2018

Published 29 June 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1181—1187


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Lapam Panda,1 Taraprasad Das,1 Suryasmita Nayak,1 Umasankar Barik,2 Bikash C Mohanta,1 Jachin Williams,3 Vivekanand Warkad,4 Guha Poonam Tapas Kumar,5 Rohit C Khanna3

1Indian Oil Center for Rural Eye Health, GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 2Naraindas Morbai Budhrani Eye Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Rayagada, India; 3Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, KAR Campus, Hyderabad, India; 4Miriam Hyman Children Eye Care Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 5District Administration, Government of Odisha, Rayagada, India

Purpose: To describe program planning and effectiveness of multistage school eye screening and assess accuracy of teachers in vision screening and detection of other ocular anomalies in Rayagada District School Sight Program, Odisha, India.
Methods: This multistage screening of students included as follows: stage I: screening for vision and other ocular anomalies by school teachers in the school; stage II: photorefraction, subjective correction and other ocular anomaly confirmation by optometrists in the school; stage III: comprehensive ophthalmologist examination in secondary eye center; and stage IV: pediatric ophthalmologist examination in tertiary eye center. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of teachers for vision screening and other ocular anomaly detection were calculated vis-à-vis optometrist (gold standard).
Results: In the study, 216 teachers examined 153,107 (95.7% of enrolled) students aged 5–15 years. Teachers referred 8,363 (5.4% of examined) students and 5,990 (71.6% of referred) were examined in stage II. After prescribing spectacles to 443, optometrists referred 883 students to stage III. The sensitivity (80.51%) and PPV (93.05%) of teachers for vision screening were high, but specificity (53.29%) and NPV (26.02%) were low. The specificity and NPV, in general, were higher in ocular anomaly detection but varied from disease to disease.
Conclusion: Multistage school screening is rapid and comprehensive in a resource-limited community. Regular training and periodic reinforcement of teachers for vision assessment and other ocular anomaly identification are required for further success of the strategy.

Keywords: vision screening, school children, sensitivity, specificity, tribal, ocular anomalies

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]