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Treatment-related adverse effects with TKIs in patients with advanced or radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Yu S, Ge J, Luo J, Wei Z, Sun B, Lei S

Received 19 October 2018

Accepted for publication 21 January 2019

Published 14 February 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 1525—1532


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Lu-Zhe Sun

Shi-Tong Yu,1,* Jun-Na Ge,1,* Jing-Yi Luo,2,* Zhi-Gang Wei,1 Bai-Hui Sun,1 Shang-Tong Lei1

1Department of General Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been administered to advanced or radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma (RR-DTC) patients for years. We performed a pooled analysis to explore the frequency of severe adverse effects in advanced or RR-DTC patients treated with sorafenib and lenvatinib.
Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of computerized databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Ovid, EMASE, and the Cochrane Library, from the drugs’ inception to July 2018 to identify clinical trials. All grade and severe adverse events (AEs; grade ≥3) were analyzed. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines.
Results: In total, seve studies published from 2012–2018 with 657 patients were eligible for this study. We included two studies (238 patients) that received 200 mg sorafenib twice and five studies (419 patients) that received 24 mg lenvatinib daily. The frequency of AEs was different among the two drugs. Patients in the sorafenib group had a significantly higher frequency of all grade hand-foot syndrome, hypocalcemia, rash, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Conversely, the lenvatinib group experienced more frequent all grade voice change, hypertension, nausea, and vomiting compared with those with sorafenib. For grade ≥3 adverse effects, hand-foot syndrome, hypocalcemia, and elevated ALT were more frequent in sorafenib-treated patients. Moreover, lenvatinib-treated patients had a significantly higher incidence of severe weight loss, hypertension, and nausea.
Conclusion: Significant differences in common adverse effects, such as all-grade and severe AEs, were detected between sorafenib and lenvatinib in the current study. Early intervention and management of treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) can minimize the impact on patients’ quality-of-life, and avoid unnecessary dose reductions and treatment-related discontinuations.

Keywords: sorafenib, lenvatinib, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma, RR-DTC, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, TKIs, adverse effects

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