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Treatment progression in sulfonylurea and dipeptidyl peptidase-4-inhibitor cohorts of type 2 diabetes patients on metformin

Authors Peng X, Jiang D, Liu D, Varnado OJ, Bae JP

Received 1 April 2016

Accepted for publication 1 July 2016

Published 10 August 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 1539—1546

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S109664

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen

Xiaomei Peng, Dingfeng Jiang, Dongju Liu, Oralee J Varnado, Jay P Bae

Eli Lilly and Company, Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Background:
Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) widely used as first-line therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments. Numerous treatment pathways after metformin failure exist. It is important to understand how treatment choices influence subsequent therapy progressions. This retrospective study compares adherence to, persistence with, and treatment progression in sulfonylurea (SU) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor patient cohorts with T2D on metformin.
Methods: Using health insurance claims data, matched patient cohorts were created and OAD use was compared in patients with T2D initiating SU or DPP-4 inhibitors (index drugs) since January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, with background metformin therapy. Propensity score matching adjusted for possible selection bias. Persistence was measured via Cox regression as days to a ≥60-day gap in index drug possession; adherence was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥80%. Evolving treatment patterns were traced at 6-month intervals for 24 months following index drug discontinuation.
Results: From among 19,621 and 7,484 patients in the SU and DPP-4 inhibitor cohorts, respectively, 6,758 patient pairs were matched. Persistence at 12 months in the SU cohort was 48.0% compared to 52.5% for the DPP-4 inhibitor cohort. PDC adherence (mean [SD]) during the 12-month follow-up period was 63.3 (29.7) for the SU cohort and 65.5 (28.7) for the DPP-4 inhibitor cohort. PDC ≥80% was 40.5% and 43.4% in the SU and DPP-4 inhibitor cohorts, respectively. A higher percentage of patients in the SU cohort remained untreated. Following index drug discontinuation, monotherapy was more common in the SU cohort, while use of two or three OADs was more common in the DPP-4 inhibitor cohort. Insulin therapy initiation was higher in the SU cohort.
Conclusion: Slightly better adherence and persistence were seen in the DPP-4 inhibitor cohort. Adherence and persistence remain a challenge to many patients; understanding therapy progression will help identify target areas for intervention and improvement.

Keywords: adherence, sulfonylurea, DPP-4 inhibitor, metformin

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