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Treatment of refractory uveitic macular edema: results of a first and second implant of long-acting intravitreal dexamethasone

Authors Zola M, Briamonte C, Lorenzi U, Machetta F, Grignolo FM, Fea AM

Received 5 May 2017

Accepted for publication 5 July 2017

Published 6 November 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 1949—1956

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S141153

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Marta Zola, Cristina Briamonte, Umberto Lorenzi, Federica Machetta, Federico M Grignolo, Antonio M Fea

Ophthalmic Eye Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Italy

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the functional and anatomical outcomes of a prospective study resulting from repeated dexamethasone intravitreal implants in patients with uveitic refractory macular edema.
Methods: Twelve eyes of 9 patients with intermediate and posterior noninfectious inflammatory uveitis complicated with refractory macular edema were regularly reviewed after a dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Patients were examined at baseline, 30, 90, 135, and 180 days with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), complete slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP), optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. After 6 months of follow-up, eyes were reassessed to receive a second implant.
Results: BCVA significantly improved when comparing the baseline values after the first and second implant (16.2 and 25.8 letters, respectively, 9.6 letters improvements, p<0.05). BCVA was better after the second implant compared to the first one throughout the follow-up, but without statistical significance. Mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 446.3±129.9 µm at baseline and was significantly reduced until day 135 (p<0.05). CMT reductions after the second injection showed a similar pattern, though differences were not statistically significant. Cataract progression was observed in 4 of 8 phakic eyes (50%) after the first implant, and in 2 of 3 phakic eyes following the second implant, with 1 eye requiring cataract surgery. One eye developed an IOP >30 mmHg 30 days after the second implant, treated topically.
Conclusion: Repeated dexamethasone intravitreal implants in uveitic patients with refractory macular edema can be used effectively in a clinical setting with an acceptable safety profile.

Keywords:
uveitis, macular edema, dexamethasone, intavitreal implant

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