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Treatment of adults with acute uncomplicated malaria with azithromycin and chloroquine in India, Colombia, and Suriname

Authors Kshirsagar NA, Gogtay NJ, Moran D, Utz G, Sethia A, Sarkar S, Vandenbroucke P

Received 8 December 2016

Accepted for publication 20 July 2017

Published 13 October 2017 Volume 2017:8 Pages 85—104

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RRTM.S129741

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Unnasch


Nilima A Kshirsagar,1 Nithya J Gogtay,1 Diego Moran,2 Gregory Utz,3 Ashok Sethia,4 Shirsendu Sarkar,5 Pol Vandenbroucke6

1Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India; 2Hospital San Andrés de Tumaco, Narino, Colombia; 3US Naval Medical Research Unit 6, Lima, Peru; 4Gita Bhawan Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, 5Pfizer, Mumbai, India; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, USA

Background: To explore the use of azithromycin–chloroquine (AZCQ) for the treatment of malaria, we conducted double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority studies in India, Colombia, and Suriname comparing the combination of azithromycin 1 g and chloroquine (CQ) 600 mg base once daily (QD) for 3 days versus atovaquone–proguanil (AP) or chloroquine plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SPCQ) in adults with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Methods: Patients were hospitalized until three documented negative blood smears and followed through Day 42. The primary end point was parasitologic cure at Day 28.
Results: In India, parasite clearance rates were 84% and 94% for AZCQ and SPCQ, respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference: –22.6, 0.8). In Colombia and Suriname, parasite clearance rates were 57% and 99% for AZCQ and AP, respectively (95% CI: –52, –32). A subsequent open-label, non-comparative third study using a 2 g dose of azithromycin and 600 mg of CQ in India and Colombia resulted in an overall efficacy rate of 97%.
Conclusion: In India, Colombia, and Suriname, 1 g azithromycin with CQ QD for 3 days was inferior to established comparator agents. An improved response rate was observed when the dose of azithromycin was increased to 2 g.

Keywords:
acute, uncomplicated malaria, antimalarial, azithromycin, chloroquine, malaria, parasitologic cure rate, plasmodium

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