Translation and Validation of the Farsi Version of the Pain Management Self-Efficacy Questionnaire
Received 16 January 2020
Accepted for publication 24 March 2020
Published 7 April 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 719—727
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Robert B. Raffa
Hayedeh Rezaei,1 Ali Faiek M Saeed,2 Kamel Abdi,3 Abbas Ebadi,4 Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh,5 Amanj Kurdi6
1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; 2Department of Management, College of Business Administration and Economic, Bayan University, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq; 3Nursing Department, Faculty of Medicine, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulimaniya City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq; 4Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; 6Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacy Practice, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
Correspondence: Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
Tel +98 9144050284
Introduction: Pain management is a complex process that is managed through a multi-disciplinary team in which nurses have a significant role. The present study aimed at translating and examining the psychometric properties of the Pain Management Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PMSEQ) among Iranian nurses.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional, methodological study conducted in 2019 among nurses working in two teaching hospitals in Sanandaj (Tohid and Kosar). The participants were selected using a convenience sampling method. Responsiveness; interpretability; and face, content, and construct validities were examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In addition, internal consistency and stability were examined using the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest, respectively.
Results: Overall, 410 nurses (210 for the EFA and 200 for the CFA) were included in the sample. In the exploratory factor analysis, two factors of comprehensive pain assessment and pain management with eigenvalues of 6.36 and 1.91, respectively, were extracted. The two factors together explained 56.64% of the variance of nurses’ pain management self-efficacy. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model had a moderate fit to the data (RMSEA: 0.12; NFI: 0.84; NNFI: 0.86; CFI: 0.88; IFI: 0.88; RFI: 0.81; GFI: 0.76; AGFI: 0.69; PGFI: 0.59; RMR: 0.09; standardized RMR: 0.09). Total questionnaire and the two factors (i.e. comprehensive pain assessment and pain management) had internal consistency coefficients of 0.891, 0.876, and 0.803, respectively.
Conclusion: The Farsi version of PMSEQ had good internal consistency and reliability, as well as content and construct validity, and can be used in future studies.
Keywords: validation, pain, self-efficacy, pain management
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