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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhance production of superoxide anion and alter the antioxidant system in human osteoblast cells

Authors Niska K, Pyszka K, Tukaj C, Wozniak M, Witold Radomski M, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I

Received 31 August 2014

Accepted for publication 1 November 2014

Published 4 February 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1095—1107


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Karolina Niska,1 Katarzyna Pyszka,1 Cecylia Tukaj,2 Michal Wozniak,1 Marek Witold Radomski,3–5 Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1

1Department of Medical Chemistry, 2Department of Electron Microscopy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, The University of Dublin Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 4Kardio-Med Silesia, 5Silesian Medical University, Zabrze, Poland

Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide for a variety of engineering and bioengineering applications. TiO2NPs are frequently used as a material for orthopedic implants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the biocompatibility of TiO2NPs and their effects on osteoblast cells, which are responsible for the growth and remodeling of the human skeleton, have not been thoroughly investigated. In the research reported here, we studied the effects of exposing hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast cells to TiO2NPs (5–15 nm) for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, cellular uptake of NPs, cell morphology, superoxide anion (O2•-) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and protein level, sirtuin 3 (SIR3) protein level, correlation between manganese (Mn) SOD and SIR, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured following exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs. Exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs resulted in: (1) cellular uptake of NPs; (2) increased cytotoxicity and cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; (3) ultrastructure changes; (4) decreased SOD and ALP activity; (5) decreased protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, and SIR3; (6) decreased total antioxidant capacity; (7) increased O2•- generation; and (8) enhanced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level). The linear relationship between the protein level of MnSOD and SIR3 and between O2•- content and SIR3 protein level was observed. Importantly, the cytotoxic effects of TiO2NPs were attenuated by the pretreatment of hFOB 1.19 cells with SOD, indicating the significant role of O2•- in the cell damage and death observed. Thus, decreased expression of SOD leading to increased oxidizing stress may underlie the nanotoxic effects of TiO2NPs on human osteoblasts.

Keywords: TiO2NPs, superoxide dismutase, sirtuin 3, nanotoxicity

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